Benchmark day 2: WD Caviar Red 1TB (WDC WD10EFRX-68JCSN0)

Esta es la segunda de la serie de pruebas a discos rígidos, esta vez contra el disco del equipo personal. Siguen las especificaciones y más abajo los resultados por si a alguno le interesa. He remarcado los datos más relevantes.

Western Digital Caviar Red 1TB
Modelo: WDC WD10EFRX-68JCSN0
Capacidad: 1 TB
Interfaz: SATA III
Caché: 64 MB
Velocidad: variable según la serie
Tamaño de sector: 4K físico, 512 lógico

# hdparm -I /dev/sda

ATA device, with non-removable media
	Model Number:       WDC WD10EFRX-68JCSN0                    
	Serial Number:      [REDACTED]
	Firmware Revision:  01.01A01
	Transport:          Serial, SATA 1.0a, SATA II Extensions, SATA Rev 2.5, SATA Rev 2.6, SATA Rev 3.0
	Supported: 8 7 6 5 
	Likely used: 8
	Logical		max	current
	cylinders	16383	16383
	heads		16	16
	sectors/track	63	63
	CHS current addressable sectors:   16514064
	LBA    user addressable sectors:  268435455
	LBA48  user addressable sectors: 1953525168
	Logical  Sector size:                   512 bytes
	Physical Sector size:                  4096 bytes
	Logical Sector-0 offset:                  0 bytes
	device size with M = 1024*1024:      953869 MBytes
	device size with M = 1000*1000:     1000204 MBytes (1000 GB)
	cache/buffer size  = unknown
	LBA, IORDY(can be disabled)
	Queue depth: 32
	Standby timer values: spec'd by Standard, with device specific minimum
	R/W multiple sector transfer: Max = 16	Current = 16
	DMA: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2 udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5 *udma6 
	     Cycle time: min=120ns recommended=120ns
	PIO: pio0 pio1 pio2 pio3 pio4 
	     Cycle time: no flow control=120ns  IORDY flow control=120ns
	Enabled	Supported:
	   *	SMART feature set
	    	Security Mode feature set
	   *	Power Management feature set
	   *	Write cache
	   *	Look-ahead
	   *	Host Protected Area feature set
	   *	WRITE_BUFFER command
	   *	READ_BUFFER command
	   *	NOP cmd
	    	Power-Up In Standby feature set
	   *	SET_FEATURES required to spinup after power up
	    	SET_MAX security extension
	   *	48-bit Address feature set
	   *	Device Configuration Overlay feature set
	   *	Mandatory FLUSH_CACHE
	   *	SMART error logging
	   *	SMART self-test
	    	Media Card Pass-Through
	   *	General Purpose Logging feature set
	   *	64-bit World wide name
	   *	{READ,WRITE}_DMA_EXT_GPL commands
	   *	Gen1 signaling speed (1.5Gb/s)
	   *	Gen2 signaling speed (3.0Gb/s)
	   *	Gen3 signaling speed (6.0Gb/s)
	   *	Native Command Queueing (NCQ)
	   *	Host-initiated interface power management
	   *	Phy event counters
	   *	Idle-Unload when NCQ is active
	   *	NCQ priority information
	   *	unknown 76[15]
	   *	DMA Setup Auto-Activate optimization
	    	Device-initiated interface power management
	   *	Software settings preservation
	   *	SMART Command Transport (SCT) feature set
	   *	SCT LBA Segment Access (AC2)
	   *	SCT Error Recovery Control (AC3)
	   *	SCT Features Control (AC4)
	   *	SCT Data Tables (AC5)
	    	unknown 206[7]
	    	unknown 206[12] (vendor specific)
	    	unknown 206[13] (vendor specific)
	Master password revision code = 65534
	not	enabled
	not	locked
	not	expired: security count
		supported: enhanced erase
Logical Unit WWN Device Identifier: 50014ee209106fb8
	NAA		: 5
	IEEE OUI	: 0014ee
	Unique ID	: 209106fb8
Checksum: correct

# smartctl -x /dev/sda

smartctl 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen,

Device Model:     WDC WD10EFRX-68JCSN0
Serial Number:    [REDACTED]
LU WWN Device Id: 5 0014ee 209106fb8
Firmware Version: 01.01A01
User Capacity: bytes [1,00 TB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   8
ATA Standard is:  Exact ATA specification draft version not indicated
Local Time is:    Tue Jan 21 20:01:34 2014 ART
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00)	Offline data collection activity
                                        was never started.
                                        Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0)	The previous self-test routine completed
                                        without error or no self-test has ever 
                                        been run.
Total time to complete Offline data collection: (13320) seconds.
Offline data collection capabilities:
                                        (0x7b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                                        Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
                                        Suspend Offline collection upon new command.
                                        Offline surface scan supported.
                                        Self-test supported.
                                        Conveyance Self-test supported.
                                        Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)	Saves SMART data before entering power-saving mode.
                                        Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)	Error logging supported.
                                        General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine recommended polling time:        (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine recommended polling time:     ( 152) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine recommended polling time:   (   5) minutes.
SCT capabilities: 	       (0x30bd)	SCT Status supported.
                                        SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
                                        SCT Feature Control supported.
                                        SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     POSR-K   200   200   051    -    0
  3 Spin_Up_Time            POS--K   138   133   021    -    4058
  4 Start_Stop_Count        -O--CK   100   100   000    -    47
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   PO--CK   200   200   140    -    0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         -OSR-K   200   200   000    -    0
  9 Power_On_Hours          -O--CK   098   098   000    -    1920
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        -O--CK   100   253   000    -    0
 11 Calibration_Retry_Count -O--CK   100   253   000    -    0
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       -O--CK   100   100   000    -    47
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count -O--CK   200   200   000    -    21
193 Load_Cycle_Count        -O--CK   200   200   000    -    25
194 Temperature_Celsius     -O---K   112   105   000    -    31
196 Reallocated_Event_Count -O--CK   200   200   000    -    0
197 Current_Pending_Sector  -O--CK   200   200   000    -    0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   ----CK   100   253   000    -    0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    -O--CK   200   200   000    -    0
200 Multi_Zone_Error_Rate   ---R--   100   253   000    -    0
                            ||||||_ K auto-keep
                            |||||__ C event count
                            ||||___ R error rate
                            |||____ S speed/performance
                            ||_____ O updated online
                            |______ P prefailure warning

SMART Extended Comprehensive Error Log Version: 1 (6 sectors)
No Errors Logged

SMART Extended Self-test Log Version: 1 (1 sectors)
No self-tests have been logged.  [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]

SCT Status Version:                  3
SCT Version (vendor specific):       258 (0x0102)
SCT Support Level:                   1
Device State:                        Active (0)
Current Temperature:                    31 Celsius
Power Cycle Min/Max Temperature:     27/37 Celsius
Lifetime    Min/Max Temperature:     19/38 Celsius
Under/Over Temperature Limit Count:   0/0
SCT Temperature History Version:     2
Temperature Sampling Period:         1 minute
Temperature Logging Interval:        1 minute
Min/Max recommended Temperature:      0/60 Celsius
Min/Max Temperature Limit:           -41/85 Celsius
Temperature History Size (Index):    478 (350)

SCT Error Recovery Control:
           Read:     70 (7,0 seconds)
          Write:     70 (7,0 seconds)

SATA Phy Event Counters (GP Log 0x11)
ID      Size     Value  Description
0x0001  2            0  Command failed due to ICRC error
0x0002  2            0  R_ERR response for data FIS
0x0003  2            0  R_ERR response for device-to-host data FIS
0x0004  2            0  R_ERR response for host-to-device data FIS
0x0005  2            0  R_ERR response for non-data FIS
0x0006  2            0  R_ERR response for device-to-host non-data FIS
0x0007  2            0  R_ERR response for host-to-device non-data FIS
0x0008  2            0  Device-to-host non-data FIS retries
0x0009  2        33157  Transition from drive PhyRdy to drive PhyNRdy
0x000a  2           45  Device-to-host register FISes sent due to a COMRESET
0x000b  2            0  CRC errors within host-to-device FIS
0x000f  2            0  R_ERR response for host-to-device data FIS, CRC
0x0012  2            0  R_ERR response for host-to-device non-data FIS, CRC
0x8000  4       523088  Vendor specific

He resaltado el contador de ciclos de carga (Load Cycle Count) puesto que es un dato a tener presente ya que otras series de discos de WD, vale decir, los Caviar Green, han tenido problemas al utilizar una política de ahorro de energía demasiado agresiva que reduce el tiempo de vida de la unidad. En este disco, por suerte, el conteo de ciclos parece bastante normal.

# hdparm -tT /dev/sda

 Timing cached reads:   26724 MB in  2.00 seconds = 13374.46 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 422 MB in  3.01 seconds = 140.12 MB/sec

$ dd if=/dev/zero of=archivo.img count=1K bs=1M conv=fdatasync

1024+0 records in
1024+0 records out
1073741824 bytes (1.1 GB) copied, 9.80654 s, 109 MB/s

Las pruebas de lectura con hdparm y con dd. Cuanto más velocidad indiquen, mejor, por supuesto.

palimpsest – Prueba de rendimiento de solo lectura (clic para agrandar)


Este gráfico representa la velocidad de lectura y el tiempo de acceso en distintas partes del disco, desde los sectores más externos al plato (parte izquierda) hasta los más cercanos al eje (parte derecha). La línea azul representa la velocidad de lectura (asociada a la escala izquierda), mientras que los puntos verdes representan los tiempos de acceso en distintas ubicaciones del disco (asociada a la escala derecha).

Es notable la diferencia en la velocidad de lectura que existe al operar con los primeros sectores respecto de los últimos: 155 MB/s contra 70 MB/s. Como curiosidad, a su vez, se puede advertir que los sectores del centro del plato tienen un tiempo de acceso ligeramente más uniforme.

$ bonnie++

Version  1.96       ------Sequential Output------ --Sequential Input- --Random-
Concurrency   1     -Per Chr- --Block-- -Rewrite- -Per Chr- --Block-- --Seeks--
Machine        Size K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP  /sec %CP
hc-maurom       16G  1229  95 114703  11 52129   4  6031  88 154671   7 102.4   2
Latency              8984us    2427ms     688ms   22552us     122ms     731ms
Version  1.96       ------Sequential Create------ --------Random Create--------
hc-maurom           -Create-- --Read--- -Delete-- -Create-- --Read--- -Delete--
              files  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP
                 16 26100  22 +++++ +++ 25978  16 +++++ +++ +++++ +++ +++++ +++
Latency             26012us     340us     771us      42us       9us      26us

Los resultados de bonnie++ son bastante completos. Además de hacer mediciones de entrada/salida sobre el disco, mide también operaciones sobre el sistema de archivos (que por ahora no reviso). Lo relevante son las tasas de escritura y lectura en bloques, la cantidad de búsquedas por segundo (más es mejor) y la latencia de las mismas (menos es mejor).

Todas las pruebas fueron realizadas sobre una partición ext4.

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